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Is COVID-19 Putting Your Social Security at Risk

The recent pandemic has caused for many drastic changes in our economy including social security funding. The US Social Security Administrations funding trusts are known as the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) Trust Fund and the Disability Insurance (DI) Trust Fund. In their 2019 annual report to Congress, the Board of Trustees released some startling detail about projected insolvency for the Social Security Program by the year 2035. The Social Security Administration (SSA) has been dipping into its “trust fund” to meet scheduled benefit payouts. Social Security program costs continue to exceed non-interest income.

The OASI has no authority to borrow money, and during the COVID-19 pandemic, the American workforce is severely reduced. Now there are far fewer workers paying into the Social Security system. The payroll tax is the cash liquidity needed to fund by far the single most significant source of federal spending, and it is drying up. Trust reserves will be depleted faster than the projection of 2035.

The situation became dire in what seems like an instant, but it is due to more than 22 million Americans losing their jobs in the past four weeks. Twenty-two million fewer people are propping up the Social Security system at a time when a lot more money will soon be going out. People who are now out of work will be able to draw benefits and may do just that out of sheer economic need.

According to Market Watch reporting, by columnist Alicia H. Munnell, a leading expert on Social Security “We are going to lose a lot of payroll tax revenue this year” as “expenditures keep at their regular pace, if not at an immediately  higher pace because older people can’t find a job might turn to claim early.” The gap between what the SSA takes in versus pays out will widen further, and the trust fund that fills this gap will be depleted faster than ever. Social Security trustees Labor Secretary Acosta, Health and Human Services Secretary Azar, and Treasury Secretary Mnuchin have yet to release their updated projections on just how quickly the trust fund will run out of cash.

With the advent of COVID-19 and ever-increasing expenditure to protect the unemployed and vulnerable people of America, it will behoove those who have retirement and estate plans to review and make appropriate changes to cover what may be shortfalls to their expected Social Security benefits. Also, consider any expected employee pensions you may have from businesses that may go bankrupt. Unfortunately, there is not a lot of time to get a good fix in place for you or the government because of the world-wide economic market crashes. The fix for Social Security has moved to a scale of monies not seen before this pandemic. The current solution of the SSA is for the American taxpayer to receive somewhere around 75 percent of their previously promised benefits. Still, that percentage was established before the loss of 22 million workers and their payroll tax contributions.

The perfect storm has come to pass. Americans are experiencing a pandemic that spurs massive unemployment, which in turn leaves, at minimum, 22-million fewer payroll tax contributors, which accelerates the timeline of a projected insolvent Social Security system. The Social Security solvency problem, coupled with the US Census Bureau reporting a declining US birth rate for the fifth straight year while people are living longer than ever before, and this perfect storm becomes cataclysmic.

The good news is American people want to go to work and get on with their lives. Successful retirement and estate planning are all about mitigating risk and expanding rewards. We can help with your planning. The sooner you start, the better, as we could remain in uncertain times for a while longer. We look forward to hearing from you, please contact our Reno office by calling us at (775) 853-5700.

Healthcare

How Veterans Can Qualify for a VA Pension Without Being Disabled

Many veterans may miss out on US Military benefits as they are always changing; it is important to understand how to navigate this life-changing aid option. Many wartime veterans receive a disability pension due to injury. But did you know that wartime veterans age 65 or more may qualify for a VA Pension without being disabled? The Veteran’s Administration qualifications for this type of VA Pension include:

  • Your military service discharge is deemed anything other than dishonorable conditions,
  • Your service was 90 or more active duty days with at minimum one day of service during a period of wartime.
  • You are age 65 years or older,
  • Your countable family income is below a threshold set every year by law.

2020 Family Income Limits (Effective December 1, 2019)

If you are a…Your yearly income must be less than…*
Veteran with no dependents$13,752*
Veteran with a spouse or a child$18,008**
Housebound veteran with no dependents$16,805
Housebound veteran with one dependent$21,063
Veteran who needs aid and attendance and has no dependents$22,939
Veteran who needs aid and attendance (A/A) and has one dependent$27,195
Two veterans married to each other$18,008
Add for each additional child to any category above$2,351
*Some income is not counted toward the yearly limit (for example, welfare benefits, some wages earned by dependent children, and Supplemental Security Income. It is also important to note that your medical-related expenses are considered when determining your yearly family income. *To be deducted, medical expenses must exceed $687 ** To be deducted, medical expenses must exceed $900

The financial information chart above, published by military.com, is commensurate with the numbers posted on the Veteran’s Administration website.  Be aware; there is a look-back period that will determine if you have transferred assets in the three years previous to filing your claim. There would be a penalty period rate of $2,266 if you did move assets for less than fair market value during this period.

The VA will pay a qualified veteran the difference between personal countable family income and the yearly income limit category into which they fall. Payments are made in 12 equal installments per month and rounded down to the nearest dollar. As an example, a single veteran with a $5,000 annual income qualifies for an annual limit of $13,752. Subtracting that veteran’s income from the income limit yields an annual pension rate of $8,752, which translates into a VA monthly pension check of $729.33 or $729.00 rounded down to the nearest dollar value.

The VA website recognizes the following wartime periods that determine if your service was during an eligible wartime period:

  • World War II (December 7, 1941, to December 31, 1946)
  • Korean conflict (June 27, 1950, to January 31, 1955)
  • Vietnam War era (February 28, 1961, to May 7, 1975, for Veterans who served in the Republic of Vietnam during that period. August 5, 1964, to May 7, 1975, for Veterans who served outside the Republic of Vietnam.)
  • Gulf War (August 2, 1990, through a future date to be set by law or presidential proclamation)

In addition to VA pension, wartime Veterans may also qualify for an additional allowance called Aid and Attendance. To qualify medically for VA Aid and Attendance, one of the following must be true:

  • Another person is required for you to perform daily activities such as bathing, dressing, and feeding, or
  • You spend a large portion, or all of your day in bed due to illness, or
  • Due to a loss of mental or physical abilities related to a disability you are a patient in a nursing home, or
  • Your eyesight is severely limited (wearing glasses or contacts your eyesight is 5/200 or less in both eyes or your concentric contraction visual field is 5 degrees or less)

There are similar benefits available to surviving spouses of wartime Veterans. If you are a wartime veteran or the surviving spouse of a wartime Veteran, we can help you determine whether you could qualify for pension benefits.

While eligible veterans or surviving spouses can apply for benefits on their own through the www.va.gov  website, it is advisable to seek the advice of counsel before applying. There may be planning options available to avoid a penalty period and speed up the qualification process. If you would like to explore whether you might qualify for VA pension benefits, please contact our Reno office by calling us at (775) 853-5700.

Healthcare

How Telehealth Services are Growing Coverage on Medicare

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) recently announced, in response to the COVID-19 outbreak, an increase of access to Medicare telehealth services. This means that Medicare beneficiaries can receive more benefits from their doctors without having to travel to a healthcare facility.

The terms “telehealth” and “telemedicine” refer to the ability to exchange medical information from one site to another through electronic communication to improve a patient’s health.  With the rapid rise of COVID-19 cases, there is the urgency to expand the use of technology to help people who need routine care. Telehealth will keep vulnerable beneficiaries and those with mild symptoms in their home, but with access to the care they need by phone and video rather than requiring an office visit.

Prior to this change, Medicare would only pay for telehealth on a limited basis, and only for persons in a designated rural area. Now Medicare beneficiaries will be able to receive the following services through telehealth: common office visits, mental health counseling, and preventive health screenings. This will help keep more of the at-risk population (Medicare beneficiaries) able to visit with a doctor from home, rather than traveling to a doctor’s office or hospital which puts the beneficiary and others at risk. Telehealth visits will be treated the same as regular, in-person visits and will be paid by Medicare at the same rates.

These changes go into effect for services starting March 6, 2020, and will continue for the duration of the COVID-19 Public Health Emergency. For more information, view the fact sheet prepared by CMS.

Better access to telehealth is a big step in getting Medicare beneficiaries appropriate care in the least restrictive way If you have questions, please do not hesitate to contact our Reno office by calling us at (775) 853-5700.

Elder Law

The Importance of a Living Will

It is important to lay out your preferences for life-sustaining medical treatment with a living will. It is often accompanied by a health-care proxy or power of attorney, which allows someone to make treatment decisions for you if you are incapacitated and the living will does not have specific instructions for the situation at hand.  “Living will” and “advance directive” are often used synonymously, but a living will legally only applies after a terminal diagnosis, whereas an advance directive is much more comprehensive and includes the health care proxy.

As of 2017, only around one in three American adults had an advance directive for end-of-life care prepared. Those who are older than 65 are more likely to have an advance directive prepared than those who are younger, as are those have chronic illness more likely than those who are not. People may be unwilling to prepare these documents because they fear that they won’t necessarily reflect their wishes at the time they become relevant; sometimes patients become more willing to undergo treatments they rejected when they were younger as they age and develop medical problems. However, the documents can be changed as long as they are witnessed and potentially notarized (depending on current law). And if you continue to communicate your values with your proxy, they can make decisions based on your most recent preferences.

So why is a living will important? It reduces ambiguity which can prevent family disputes during what is already a difficult time. It may seem like something that can be put off, but life is unpredictable; one never knows when these documents could become relevant. Furthermore, it needn’t be a hassle. A living will is a straightforward document, however it’s important to work with legal counsel to make sure your beliefs are properly stated. Other health care documents should also be prepared at that time, like a health care power of attorney that designates a person to make health care decisions for you if you are unable.  Once you have signed any documents make sure you keep them updated, especially if you change states, and be diligent in communicating with whomever you named to act on your behalf.

If you need a living will or health care power of attorney or already have one that you would like reviewed, contact our Reno office by calling us at (775) 853-5700.

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Healthcare

Medicare, Medicaid, and Out Of Pocket Cost for Alzheimer’s Disease

According to the 2020 Alzheimer’s Association report entitled Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures (alz.org),  many Americans who will be living with croppling dementia are contemplating the next steps for their health options. Health care and long-term care costs for individuals with Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias (ADRD) are staggering as dementia is one of society’s costliest conditions.

The year 2020 sees total payments for all individuals with dementia diseases to reach an estimated 305 billion dollars. This substantial sum does not include the value of informal caregivers who are uncompensated for their efforts. Of this 305 billion dollars Medicare and Medicaid are projected to cover 67 percent of the total health care and long-term care costs of people living with dementia, which accounts for about 206 billion dollars of the total cost of care. Out of pocket expenditure projections are 22 percent of total payments or 66 billion dollars. Other payment sources such as private insurance, other managed care organizations, as well as uncompensated care account for 11 percent of total costs or 33 billion dollars.

The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) cite that 27 percent of older Americans with Alzheimer’s or other dementias who have Medicare also have Medicaid coverage. As a comparison, the percentage of those Americans without dementia is 11 percent. The addition of Medicaid becomes a necessity for some as it covers nursing home and other long-term care services for those individuals with meager income and assets. The extensive use of CMS services, particularly Medicaid, by people with dementia translates into extremely high costs. Despite the high rate of expenditure by federal social and health services, Americans living with Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia still incur high out-of-pocket expenses compared to beneficiaries without dementia. Much of these costs pay for Medicare, additional health insurance premiums, and associated deductibles.

Older Americans living with Alzheimer’s or other forms of dementia have twice the number of hospital stays per year than those without cognitive issues. Dementia patients with comorbidities such as coronary artery disease, COPD, stroke, or cancer, to name a few, have higher health care costs than those without coexisting serious medical conditions. In addition to more hospital stays, older Alzheimer’s sufferers require more home health care visits and skilled nursing facility stays per year than other older people without dementia.

Cost projections for Medicare, Medicaid, and out of pocket costs for Americans living with Alzheimer’s disease or other forms of dementia continue to increase. The average life span of an American with Alzheimer’s is 6 -8 years, and as the disease progresses, so do the requirements of care and support. This care and support include medical treatment, prescription medications, medical equipment, safety services, home safety modifications, personal care, adult daycare, and ultimately residence in a skilled nursing facility. Disease-modifying therapies and treatments remain elusive, and there is no cure for Alzheimer’s and other dementia diseases. ADRD imposes a tremendous financial burden on patients and their families, payers, health care delivery systems, and society.

In the absence of a cure, the Alzheimer’s Association predicts the total direct medical cost expenditures in the US for ADRD will exceed 1 trillion dollars in 2050 because of increases in elderly population projections. Health policy planners and decision-makers must gain a comprehensive understanding of the economic gravity that Alzheimer’s and other dementia diseases present to the US population. The direct and indirect total medical and social costs and accompanying solution-driven mandates must be identified to CMS, private insurance groups, facilities with dementia units, and family systems that function as non-compensated caregivers.

We help families plan for the possibility of needing long term care, and how to pay for it. If you have questions or need guidance in your planning or planning for a loved one, please do not hesitate to contact our Reno office by calling us at (775) 853-5700.

Uncategorized

Keeping Loneliness Away from Seniors

The medically recommended protocols for social distancing and government mandates that restrict large gatherings of Americans to slow the spread of the coronavirus are minimizing our abilities to interact with each other. This isolation holds especially true for those seniors who live alone or in long term health care facilities. Human beings are, by nature, designed for close contact and social interaction. Maintaining human connection, whether it be family or casual acquaintances, can help boost immunity, combat anxiety and stress, and can even lower health risks that are exacerbated by stress like heart attacks and hypertension.

The Association of Health Care Journalists reports that it is critical for older adults’ wellbeing to maintain social ties. Those seniors who experience loneliness and social isolation are more likely to develop dementia, more likely to fall, have an increase in hospital readmissions, and an increase in mortality. Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, health care facilities and hospitals across the country have put a pause on in-person visitation. This separation will protect the most vulnerable populations, such as older adults and those individuals with chronic health conditions.

To help your loved ones in a facility or living on their own during this challenging time of COVID-19 Right at Home, a leader in the in-home senior care industry, has some ideas to stay connected to those you love who are isolated during this outbreak.

  • Set up phone dates. Scheduling a regular call at a prescribed time and date brings you closer through conversation and also gives a senior something to look forward to experiencing. Do not over-promise. It is better to have two calls a week that you always attend rather than to miss a promised chat session because you overscheduled your time.
  • Write letters to each other. Getting postal mail is fun for all ages, especially when it is a letter, filled with memories of shared times. Include self-addressed stamped envelopes back and forth to encourage continuing the exchange. Lonely seniors will usually re-read these notes and treasure them.
  • Set up chatty technology. Whether it’s a tablet, home device, or smartphone, you can use your digital device to use apps like Facebook Messenger, Alexa, FaceTime, Skype, and more to videoconference with your senior. If your senior needs some technical help, most health care workers will be able to help get them started as you will not be permitted to be onsite.
  • Virtually watch movies together. If you and your senior have a desktop computer or laptop that uses the Chrome browser, Netflix Party will synchronize video playback and add group chat capability to your chosen show or movie. It’s like having a long-distance movie night or tv watching party.
  • Attend online events and activities. Participating online is a big deal when faced with isolation. There are thousands of people online who have similar interests as you. Meetup.com is a free membership group that has 24 separate categories, like dance, language, and culture, photography, family, tech, health and wellness, music, and more. All of these categories host multiple online events in which your senior can participate.
  • Attend virtual religious services. Faith is so important right now, especially for some seniors. If your loved one has a worship service they used to attend, see if they are now providing their services online. Many houses of worship have Facebook pages where a service is a click away. It will lift your senior’s spirits immensely to see and listen to their familiar pastor, rabbi, or priest.
  • Make use of the public library online. More than ever, libraries are offering their services for things like movies, e-books, and audiobooks.
  • Stay physically active. Log into a virtual exercise class online. Most of the classes are free, and they are found everywhere on YouTube. Just be sure to search for an exercise class that is appropriate for your age and physical abilities. As with any new exercise regime, always consult your doctor first.
  • Get outdoors, even for 5 minutes. If at all possible to do safely, step outside on the porch, patio, or balcony and encourage your loved one to do the same. Take in some sunshine and fresh air, take a deep breath and see the bigger picture of life.

Prolonged loneliness can bring about depression and even dementia. However, social distancing does not have to bring about social disconnection. Employ some of these ideas in the world of your senior to protect them from isolation during this pandemic. It is crucial to your loved one’s wellbeing to have direction and routine, hope, and human connection.

We are also using video technology for our meetings so we can continue to help with planning needs of our community.

If you have questions or need guidance in your planning or planning for a loved one, please do not hesitate to contact our office by calling us at (775) 853-5700.

Uncategorized

People of All Ages Must Plan for the Unexpected

The sudden rise of the coronavirus, COVID-19, has left many unprepared and confused. There are numerous reports of shortages of antibacterial hand sanitizer, disinfecting wipes, and even toilet paper. While we can’t predict when something like COVID-19 might strike, we can take steps to prepare for an unexpected crisis to help reduce the stress on ourselves and family members.

Designate a family member who will check on elderly relatives. Make sure everyone knows who will responsible for checking in with an elderly loved one each day. Also set up a process for notifying other family members of an elderly loved one’s condition – this may include sending an email, text messaging, or phone calls. The method is not as important as agreeing to a process and sticking to it so all family members stay informed.

Seek medical advice in the event of a health care crisis. There has been a great deal of reporting about COVID-19, and some of it has been inconsistent. Reach out to your trusted medical team to understand what you and your loved ones should be doing in this, or any, health care crisis.

Make sure someone knows how to get your bills paid if you are unable to. This type of power can be provided to an agent under a financial power of attorney. Powers of attorney can include numerous powers, so it is critical to talk with legal counsel before signing any type of legal document that gives someone else authority over your finances.

Be sure there is an accurate list of medical prescriptions readily available in your home. If you become ill, it is important that someone knows the medicines you take and the dosage. Keep this in your home where others can find it, and make sure the list is dated, noting any time it is updated. Many of us assume that our doctor has an updated prescription list, but if you are seeing multiple specialists, that may not be true.

Designate someone you trust to make medical decisions for you if you are unable to. This should not be a form that is downloaded from the internet. Deciding what type of treatment you want, where you want to live, and what should happen if you have a terminal illness are serious topics that should be considered carefully, then translated into a proper legal document.

Planning for an unexpected health care or financial crisis can help relieve a great deal of stress for you and your family. We would welcome the opportunity to help you come up with a plan that works for you.

If you have questions or need guidance in your planning or planning for a loved one, please do not hesitate to contact our office by calling us at (775) 853-5700.

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VA Closes Offices During COVID-19

All Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) Regional Offices are closed to the public for veteran walk-in claim assistance, counseling, scheduled appointments, and other in-person services in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The offices will remain open to essential personnel as services will be provided to veterans through the Veterans Administration website (VA). Specific claim question information can be addressed through the Inquiry Routing & Information System (IRIS) or via telephone at 1-800-827-1000. The VBA also has a presence on Facebook and Twitter that you can follow for updates. This social distancing effort will protect veterans who are older, who have underlying health conditions, or both, as well as on-site VA personnel. Though the delivery mechanisms to provide benefits and services are now focused via online services, veterans, families, and survivors will continue to receive assistance during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Hearings with a veteran’s law judge will continue in a videoconferencing format. Family members, outside advocates such as the American Legion’s service officers, as well as attorneys who may be representing a veteran, must now videoconference to guide veterans through their claim process. This process works very well except in the instances when a veteran does not have a smartphone or other internet device or has one but are uncomfortable or unfamiliar with using the technology. The VA is allowing veterans to cancel their meetings with the judge though it will delay the process. This delay, however, will not jeopardize their claim. Family, formal advocate groups, and attorneys, either for free or for a fee, must step in to assist the many veterans who are senior or near senior age who are unable to navigate benefits claims in these formats.

To make ends meet from layoffs and the national economic fallout due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many veterans who have been eligible but never filed for disability ratings are doing so now. All new disability claims require, at minimum, one examination by a physician. An appointment can be tough to schedule as doctors are currently prioritizing emergency and sick calls over non-emergency appointments. The important thing for a veteran to do is to schedule the appointment anyway because beginning the process identifies the start date for retroactive payment for their disability should the veteran become approved.

The Veteran Benefits Administration also handles GI Bill benefits, VA home loans, as well as disability claims. All of these services are being funneled into online, videoconferencing, and telephone formats until further notice. VA hospitals and clinics will remain open to veterans but have new restrictions, so be aware of what they are before trying to walk into a VA healthcare facility.

If you have questions or would like to discuss your current legal needs, please don’t hesitate to reach out by calling our office at (775) 853-5700.

Uncategorized

The Hybrid Long-Term Care Insurance Policy

You have probably heard about the astronomical costs of nursing-home care if you become seriously ill or injured. You might also know that Medicare would cover only a minimal amount of those costs. Private insurance doesn’t seem like a good bet either, if you’ve heard horror stories about skyrocketing premium costs and difficulties in even obtaining long-term care (LTC) insurance in the first place.

There may be a better way. “Hybrid” policies essentially combine life insurance or an annuity with LTC coverage. (The benefits can be known as “accelerated death benefits” or “living benefits,” or the coverage can be called “life/long term care,” “linked benefits,” or a “combo” policy.)

This type of policy will pay if you need nursing care, but, if you never need that, then the policy functions like standard whole-life coverage. It’s a win-win. Say, for example, you buy a hybrid policy with a $100,000 death benefit. You eventually need $50,000 of that coverage to pay for LTC. Then, when you pass, your beneficiary would receive a $50,000 payout from what’s left of the original $100,000 coverage.

Some plans offer tax-free death benefits to your heirs if your LTC benefits are not fully used or needed. They may return your premiums if you change your mind down the road. Premiums can be locked in from the initial purchase date, with a guarantee that they will never increase. Those who already hold a legacy policy with a large cash value may be able to roll that value over, tax free, into a new hybrid policy.

For those who can afford to pay premiums in a lump sum in advance, LTC coverage could amount to as much as twice the face value of the policy. Compare that with simply setting money aside for LTC expenses at a rate of five percent interest. It could take as long as thirty years to save for what this policy offered on its face.

There is a wide range of coverage, depending on the policies. They may cover different services, delivered at-home, in a facility, or both. The monthly or daily benefits can vary. Some policies require an elimination period (a delay between the time a doctor qualifies you for coverage, and actual payment); some do not. Some provide inflation protection. Some provide adjustable rates, depending on how much the insured might need LTC as against the death benefit.

Always also remember that the carrier must have the long-term financial stability to pay claims, and to remain in business, for decades to come.

To sort through all these intricacies, the National Association of Insurance Commissioners has issued a free and comprehensive Shopper’s Guide to LTC Insurance. It provides especially helpful shopping tips at pp. 31-36. Find the publication here.

We can create a long-term care plan that incorporates a hybrid plan like this with an irrevocable trust that will protect all of your bank accounts and real property (like your home) in the event you need long term care. If you are interested in protecting your savings and your home, we would welcome the opportunity to discuss a plan that works for you.

Please contact our office by calling us at (775) 853-5700.

Uncategorized

Estate Planning with a Family That is Blended

Couples often bring children into a marriage from a prior marriage or union and then have children together. This is often referred to as a blended family. Blended families highlight the need for careful estate planning to make sure the needs of each spouse are met, as well as the needs of each parents’ children.

If one spouse is significantly younger, this sometimes means that the older spouse’s children are close in age to the younger.  There can also be sibling rivalry between children of a parent and stepchildren. These relationships can cause more than friction between the stepparent and stepchildren.

Most parents want to ensure that their assets will pass to their children and/or grandchildren, and maybe not their stepchildren.  However, without careful estate planning, there is no guarantee that their children will inherit their assets.  In fact, if the couple creates identical wills such that their assets pass to the survivor of them, there is a significant likelihood their children will be disinherited.

This is because all of their assets will pass to the surviving spouse to do with as he or she pleases. This can result in the surviving spouse excluding the stepchildren, who then receive nothing.

Poor planning can lead to a race for survival between spouses. A will can be changed at any time; therefore, a surviving spouse could change his will after the death of the first spouse, leaving nothing for the first spouse’s children.

Another common occurrence is for each spouse to name the other as a beneficiary on accounts or pieces of real property. Doing so will not allow the bank account, piece of property or other type of asset to pass to anyone else, regardless of what their estate planning documents provide.

A trust, however, can allow a spouse/parent to “rule from the grave.” At the death of the first spouse half of the trust assets can be locked down. With this type of planning, each spouse can have the assurance that their share of the trust assets (or one half) will pass to their children, grandchildren or any other person they wish. The remaining assets are used for the surviving spouse and will then pass as that spouse wishes.

We help families of all types plan so that their savings, home and other property passes the way they intend. This involves getting to know you and your family and having a complete understanding of each spouse’s wishes. If you’d like to discuss your particular situation, please contact our office by calling us at (775) 853-5700.